abcstarstuff:

SATURN’S HEXAGON: AN AMAZING PHENOMENON

** Synopsis: Researchers at the Planetary Sciences Group of the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country reveal some of the secrets of Saturn’s mysterious hexagonal wave, including its rotation period, which could be that of the planet itself. The study illustrates the front cover of the journal Geophysical Research Letters. **

An unusual structure with a hexagonal shape surrounding Saturn’s north pole was spotted on the planet for the first time thirty years ago. Nothing similar with such a regular geometry had ever been seen on any planet in the solar system. The Planetary Sciences Group has now been able to study and measure the phenomenon and, among other achievements, establish its rotation period. What is more, this period could be the same as that of the planet itself. Saturn is the only planet in the solar system whose rotation time remains unknown. The research illustrates the front cover of the journal Geophysical Research Letters and has been highlighted by the publication’s editor.

In 1980 and 1981 NASA’s Voyager 1 and 2 space probes passed for the first time over the planet Saturn, located 1,500 million km from the Sun. Among their numerous discoveries they observed a strange, hexagon-shaped structure in the planet’s uppermost clouds surrounding its north pole. The hexagon remained virtually static, without moving, vis-à-vis the planet’s overall rotation that was not accurately known. What is more, the images captured by the Voyager probes found that the clouds were moving rapidly inside the hexagon in an enclosed jet stream and were being dragged by winds travelling at over 400 km/h.

Thirty years later — the equivalent of one Saturn year, in other words, the time the planet takes to go all the way around the Sun — and over more than six consecutive years, researchers in the UPV/EHU’s Planetary Sciences Group, in collaboration with astronomers from various countries, were able to observe Saturn’s northern polar region in detail once again and confirmed that the hexagon continued in place. After measuring the positions of the hexagon vertices with great precision, they determined that its movement remains extremely stable, and on the basis of the cloud movements, that the jet stream inside it remains unchanged. For this study the researchers used images taken from the Earth between 2008 and 2014; they used, among others, the astronomical cameras PlanetCam (developed by the Planetary Sciences Group itself) and Astralux, fitted to the telescopes of the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain); in addition, they used the very high resolution images obtained by the Cassini spacecraft, which has been orbiting Saturn since 2004.

Due to the tilt of approximately 27° of the planet Saturn, its polar atmosphere undergoes intense seasonable variations with long polar nights lasting over seven years, followed by a long period of 23 years of variable illumination. However, the seasonal variations do not affect the hexagon and its jet stream at all, so both are part of an extensive wave, deeply rooted in Saturn’s atmosphere. The UPV/EHU researchers suggest that the hexagon and its stream are the manifestation of a “Rossby wave” similar to those that form in the mid-latitudes of the Earth. On our planet the jet stream meanders from west to east and brings, associated with it, the system of areas of low pressure and anticyclones which we have been seeing regularly on weather maps.

On Saturn, a hydrogen gas planet, ten times the size of the Earth, cold in its upper clouds, without a solid surface, and with an atmosphere as deep as that of an ocean, “the hexagonal wavy motion of the jet stream is expected to be propagated vertically and reveal to us aspects of the planet’s hidden atmosphere,” pointed out Agustín Sánchez-Lavega, Head of the Planetary Sciences research group. “The movement of the hexagon could therefore be linked to the depths of Saturn, and the rotation period of this structure, which, as we have been able to ascertain, is 10 hours, 39 minutes and 23 seconds, could be that of the planet itself,” he added. Saturn is the only planet in the solar system whose rotation period is not yet known.
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abcstarstuff:

SATURN’S HEXAGON: AN AMAZING PHENOMENON

** Synopsis: Researchers at the Planetary Sciences Group of the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country reveal some of the secrets of Saturn’s mysterious hexagonal wave, including its rotation period, which could be that of the planet itself. The study illustrates the front cover of the journal Geophysical Research Letters. **

An unusual structure with a hexagonal shape surrounding Saturn’s north pole was spotted on the planet for the first time thirty years ago. Nothing similar with such a regular geometry had ever been seen on any planet in the solar system. The Planetary Sciences Group has now been able to study and measure the phenomenon and, among other achievements, establish its rotation period. What is more, this period could be the same as that of the planet itself. Saturn is the only planet in the solar system whose rotation time remains unknown. The research illustrates the front cover of the journal Geophysical Research Letters and has been highlighted by the publication’s editor.

In 1980 and 1981 NASA’s Voyager 1 and 2 space probes passed for the first time over the planet Saturn, located 1,500 million km from the Sun. Among their numerous discoveries they observed a strange, hexagon-shaped structure in the planet’s uppermost clouds surrounding its north pole. The hexagon remained virtually static, without moving, vis-à-vis the planet’s overall rotation that was not accurately known. What is more, the images captured by the Voyager probes found that the clouds were moving rapidly inside the hexagon in an enclosed jet stream and were being dragged by winds travelling at over 400 km/h.

Thirty years later — the equivalent of one Saturn year, in other words, the time the planet takes to go all the way around the Sun — and over more than six consecutive years, researchers in the UPV/EHU’s Planetary Sciences Group, in collaboration with astronomers from various countries, were able to observe Saturn’s northern polar region in detail once again and confirmed that the hexagon continued in place. After measuring the positions of the hexagon vertices with great precision, they determined that its movement remains extremely stable, and on the basis of the cloud movements, that the jet stream inside it remains unchanged. For this study the researchers used images taken from the Earth between 2008 and 2014; they used, among others, the astronomical cameras PlanetCam (developed by the Planetary Sciences Group itself) and Astralux, fitted to the telescopes of the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain); in addition, they used the very high resolution images obtained by the Cassini spacecraft, which has been orbiting Saturn since 2004.

Due to the tilt of approximately 27° of the planet Saturn, its polar atmosphere undergoes intense seasonable variations with long polar nights lasting over seven years, followed by a long period of 23 years of variable illumination. However, the seasonal variations do not affect the hexagon and its jet stream at all, so both are part of an extensive wave, deeply rooted in Saturn’s atmosphere. The UPV/EHU researchers suggest that the hexagon and its stream are the manifestation of a “Rossby wave” similar to those that form in the mid-latitudes of the Earth. On our planet the jet stream meanders from west to east and brings, associated with it, the system of areas of low pressure and anticyclones which we have been seeing regularly on weather maps.

On Saturn, a hydrogen gas planet, ten times the size of the Earth, cold in its upper clouds, without a solid surface, and with an atmosphere as deep as that of an ocean, “the hexagonal wavy motion of the jet stream is expected to be propagated vertically and reveal to us aspects of the planet’s hidden atmosphere,” pointed out Agustín Sánchez-Lavega, Head of the Planetary Sciences research group. “The movement of the hexagon could therefore be linked to the depths of Saturn, and the rotation period of this structure, which, as we have been able to ascertain, is 10 hours, 39 minutes and 23 seconds, could be that of the planet itself,” he added. Saturn is the only planet in the solar system whose rotation period is not yet known.
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abcstarstuff:

SATURN’S HEXAGON: AN AMAZING PHENOMENON

** Synopsis: Researchers at the Planetary Sciences Group of the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country reveal some of the secrets of Saturn’s mysterious hexagonal wave, including its rotation period, which could be that of the planet itself. The study illustrates the front cover of the journal Geophysical Research Letters. **

An unusual structure with a hexagonal shape surrounding Saturn’s north pole was spotted on the planet for the first time thirty years ago. Nothing similar with such a regular geometry had ever been seen on any planet in the solar system. The Planetary Sciences Group has now been able to study and measure the phenomenon and, among other achievements, establish its rotation period. What is more, this period could be the same as that of the planet itself. Saturn is the only planet in the solar system whose rotation time remains unknown. The research illustrates the front cover of the journal Geophysical Research Letters and has been highlighted by the publication’s editor.

In 1980 and 1981 NASA’s Voyager 1 and 2 space probes passed for the first time over the planet Saturn, located 1,500 million km from the Sun. Among their numerous discoveries they observed a strange, hexagon-shaped structure in the planet’s uppermost clouds surrounding its north pole. The hexagon remained virtually static, without moving, vis-à-vis the planet’s overall rotation that was not accurately known. What is more, the images captured by the Voyager probes found that the clouds were moving rapidly inside the hexagon in an enclosed jet stream and were being dragged by winds travelling at over 400 km/h.

Thirty years later — the equivalent of one Saturn year, in other words, the time the planet takes to go all the way around the Sun — and over more than six consecutive years, researchers in the UPV/EHU’s Planetary Sciences Group, in collaboration with astronomers from various countries, were able to observe Saturn’s northern polar region in detail once again and confirmed that the hexagon continued in place. After measuring the positions of the hexagon vertices with great precision, they determined that its movement remains extremely stable, and on the basis of the cloud movements, that the jet stream inside it remains unchanged. For this study the researchers used images taken from the Earth between 2008 and 2014; they used, among others, the astronomical cameras PlanetCam (developed by the Planetary Sciences Group itself) and Astralux, fitted to the telescopes of the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain); in addition, they used the very high resolution images obtained by the Cassini spacecraft, which has been orbiting Saturn since 2004.

Due to the tilt of approximately 27° of the planet Saturn, its polar atmosphere undergoes intense seasonable variations with long polar nights lasting over seven years, followed by a long period of 23 years of variable illumination. However, the seasonal variations do not affect the hexagon and its jet stream at all, so both are part of an extensive wave, deeply rooted in Saturn’s atmosphere. The UPV/EHU researchers suggest that the hexagon and its stream are the manifestation of a “Rossby wave” similar to those that form in the mid-latitudes of the Earth. On our planet the jet stream meanders from west to east and brings, associated with it, the system of areas of low pressure and anticyclones which we have been seeing regularly on weather maps.

On Saturn, a hydrogen gas planet, ten times the size of the Earth, cold in its upper clouds, without a solid surface, and with an atmosphere as deep as that of an ocean, “the hexagonal wavy motion of the jet stream is expected to be propagated vertically and reveal to us aspects of the planet’s hidden atmosphere,” pointed out Agustín Sánchez-Lavega, Head of the Planetary Sciences research group. “The movement of the hexagon could therefore be linked to the depths of Saturn, and the rotation period of this structure, which, as we have been able to ascertain, is 10 hours, 39 minutes and 23 seconds, could be that of the planet itself,” he added. Saturn is the only planet in the solar system whose rotation period is not yet known.

yahoonewsphotos:

Human body parts grown in a lab
In a north London hospital, scientists are growing noses, ears and blood vessels in the laboratory in a bold attempt to make body parts using stem cells.  It is among several labs around the world, including in the U.S., that are working on the futuristic idea of growing custom-made organs in the lab.  While only a handful of patients have received the British lab-made organs so far— including tear ducts, blood vessels and windpipes — researchers hope they will soon be able to transplant more types of body parts into patients, including what would be the world’s first nose made partly from stem cells. (AP)Find more news related pictures in our photo galleries and follow us on Tumblr
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yahoonewsphotos:

Human body parts grown in a lab
In a north London hospital, scientists are growing noses, ears and blood vessels in the laboratory in a bold attempt to make body parts using stem cells.  It is among several labs around the world, including in the U.S., that are working on the futuristic idea of growing custom-made organs in the lab.  While only a handful of patients have received the British lab-made organs so far— including tear ducts, blood vessels and windpipes — researchers hope they will soon be able to transplant more types of body parts into patients, including what would be the world’s first nose made partly from stem cells. (AP)Find more news related pictures in our photo galleries and follow us on Tumblr
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yahoonewsphotos:

Human body parts grown in a lab
In a north London hospital, scientists are growing noses, ears and blood vessels in the laboratory in a bold attempt to make body parts using stem cells.  It is among several labs around the world, including in the U.S., that are working on the futuristic idea of growing custom-made organs in the lab.  While only a handful of patients have received the British lab-made organs so far— including tear ducts, blood vessels and windpipes — researchers hope they will soon be able to transplant more types of body parts into patients, including what would be the world’s first nose made partly from stem cells. (AP)Find more news related pictures in our photo galleries and follow us on Tumblr
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yahoonewsphotos:

Human body parts grown in a lab
In a north London hospital, scientists are growing noses, ears and blood vessels in the laboratory in a bold attempt to make body parts using stem cells.  It is among several labs around the world, including in the U.S., that are working on the futuristic idea of growing custom-made organs in the lab.  While only a handful of patients have received the British lab-made organs so far— including tear ducts, blood vessels and windpipes — researchers hope they will soon be able to transplant more types of body parts into patients, including what would be the world’s first nose made partly from stem cells. (AP)Find more news related pictures in our photo galleries and follow us on Tumblr
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yahoonewsphotos:

Human body parts grown in a lab
In a north London hospital, scientists are growing noses, ears and blood vessels in the laboratory in a bold attempt to make body parts using stem cells.  It is among several labs around the world, including in the U.S., that are working on the futuristic idea of growing custom-made organs in the lab.  While only a handful of patients have received the British lab-made organs so far— including tear ducts, blood vessels and windpipes — researchers hope they will soon be able to transplant more types of body parts into patients, including what would be the world’s first nose made partly from stem cells. (AP)Find more news related pictures in our photo galleries and follow us on Tumblr
ZoomInfo

yahoonewsphotos:

Human body parts grown in a lab

In a north London hospital, scientists are growing noses, ears and blood vessels in the laboratory in a bold attempt to make body parts using stem cells.

It is among several labs around the world, including in the U.S., that are working on the futuristic idea of growing custom-made organs in the lab.

While only a handful of patients have received the British lab-made organs so far— including tear ducts, blood vessels and windpipes — researchers hope they will soon be able to transplant more types of body parts into patients, including what would be the world’s first nose made partly from stem cells. (AP)

Find more news related pictures in our photo galleries and follow us on Tumblr

theoriginofthespecies:

In its 4.6 billion years circling the sun, the Earth has harbored an increasing diversity of life forms:

for the last 3.6 billion years, simple cells (prokaryotes);
for the last 3.4 billion years, cyanobacteria performing photosynthesis;
for the last 2 billion years, complex cells (eukaryotes);
for the last 1 billion years, multicellular life;
for the last 600 million years, simple animals;
for the last 550 million years, bilaterians, animals with a front and a back;
for the last 500 million years, fish and proto-amphibians;
for the last 475 million years, land plants;
for the last 400 million years, insects and seeds;
for the last 360 million years, amphibians;
for the last 300 million years, reptiles;
for the last 200 million years, mammals;
for the last 150 million years, birds;
for the last 130 million years, flowers;
for the last 60 million years, the primates,
for the last 20 million years, the family Hominidae (great apes);
for the last 2.5 million years, the genus Homo (human predecessors);
for the last 200,000 years, anatomically modern humans.

Periodic extinctions have temporarily reduced diversity, eliminating:
2.4 billion years ago, many obligate anaerobes, in the oxygen catastrophe;
252 million years ago, the trilobites, in the Permian–Triassic extinction event;
66 million years ago, the pterosaurs and nonavian dinosaurs, in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.

Dates are approximate.

Credit: PBS.org

astrodidact:

via I fucking love science/fb

Visible light makes up about 2% of the entire electromagnetic spectrum. That leaves a tremendous amount of the Universe unavailable for us to explore visually, so scientists had to invent ways for us to see that which is out of our natural range. 

This picture illustrates just a few of the instruments used by NASA to explore our planet and out into space: HESS, Fermi and Swift for gamma-ray, NuSTAR and Chandra for X-ray, GALEX for ultraviolet, Kepler, Hubble, Keck (I and II), SALT, and Gemini (South) for visible, Spitzer, Herschel, and Sofia for infrared, Planck and CARMA for microwave, Spektr-R, Greenbank, and VLA for radio.

More info: http://on.fb.me/1emvcUF 

Image credit: NASA

wildcat2030:

With a projected settlement date of 2025, the Mars One project has received over 200,000 applications for the one way trip to the Red Planet. But creating a living, sustainable community on the distant planet for the select inhabitants will require not only unique technological and engineering solutions, but also novel architectural systems. Bryan Versteeg is a conceptual designer who’s been working with the Mars One team in anticipation of the planet’s eventual colonization. (via SpaceHabs: One man’s architectural vision for colonizing Mars)
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wildcat2030:

With a projected settlement date of 2025, the Mars One project has received over 200,000 applications for the one way trip to the Red Planet. But creating a living, sustainable community on the distant planet for the select inhabitants will require not only unique technological and engineering solutions, but also novel architectural systems. Bryan Versteeg is a conceptual designer who’s been working with the Mars One team in anticipation of the planet’s eventual colonization. (via SpaceHabs: One man’s architectural vision for colonizing Mars)
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wildcat2030:

With a projected settlement date of 2025, the Mars One project has received over 200,000 applications for the one way trip to the Red Planet. But creating a living, sustainable community on the distant planet for the select inhabitants will require not only unique technological and engineering solutions, but also novel architectural systems. Bryan Versteeg is a conceptual designer who’s been working with the Mars One team in anticipation of the planet’s eventual colonization. (via SpaceHabs: One man’s architectural vision for colonizing Mars)
ZoomInfo
wildcat2030:

With a projected settlement date of 2025, the Mars One project has received over 200,000 applications for the one way trip to the Red Planet. But creating a living, sustainable community on the distant planet for the select inhabitants will require not only unique technological and engineering solutions, but also novel architectural systems. Bryan Versteeg is a conceptual designer who’s been working with the Mars One team in anticipation of the planet’s eventual colonization. (via SpaceHabs: One man’s architectural vision for colonizing Mars)
ZoomInfo
wildcat2030:

With a projected settlement date of 2025, the Mars One project has received over 200,000 applications for the one way trip to the Red Planet. But creating a living, sustainable community on the distant planet for the select inhabitants will require not only unique technological and engineering solutions, but also novel architectural systems. Bryan Versteeg is a conceptual designer who’s been working with the Mars One team in anticipation of the planet’s eventual colonization. (via SpaceHabs: One man’s architectural vision for colonizing Mars)
ZoomInfo

wildcat2030:

With a projected settlement date of 2025, the Mars One project has received over 200,000 applications for the one way trip to the Red Planet. But creating a living, sustainable community on the distant planet for the select inhabitants will require not only unique technological and engineering solutions, but also novel architectural systems. Bryan Versteeg is a conceptual designer who’s been working with the Mars One team in anticipation of the planet’s eventual colonization. (via SpaceHabs: One man’s architectural vision for colonizing Mars)

thejunglenook:

innocentpunkrockkids:

"The brain can get sick too." 
Re-make of this post.
End mental health stigma.

Mental health research, treatment, and education is so terribly important. There is so much we don’t yet understand about the brain and mental health disorders / illnesses… images like these have been one of the most useful tools in breaking down mental health stigma (especially among those who have never faced these issues). Read more about neuroimaging, mental illness, and the strengths / weaknesses of this tool here at NIMH.
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thejunglenook:

innocentpunkrockkids:

"The brain can get sick too." 
Re-make of this post.
End mental health stigma.

Mental health research, treatment, and education is so terribly important. There is so much we don’t yet understand about the brain and mental health disorders / illnesses… images like these have been one of the most useful tools in breaking down mental health stigma (especially among those who have never faced these issues). Read more about neuroimaging, mental illness, and the strengths / weaknesses of this tool here at NIMH.
ZoomInfo
thejunglenook:

innocentpunkrockkids:

"The brain can get sick too." 
Re-make of this post.
End mental health stigma.

Mental health research, treatment, and education is so terribly important. There is so much we don’t yet understand about the brain and mental health disorders / illnesses… images like these have been one of the most useful tools in breaking down mental health stigma (especially among those who have never faced these issues). Read more about neuroimaging, mental illness, and the strengths / weaknesses of this tool here at NIMH.
ZoomInfo
thejunglenook:

innocentpunkrockkids:

"The brain can get sick too." 
Re-make of this post.
End mental health stigma.

Mental health research, treatment, and education is so terribly important. There is so much we don’t yet understand about the brain and mental health disorders / illnesses… images like these have been one of the most useful tools in breaking down mental health stigma (especially among those who have never faced these issues). Read more about neuroimaging, mental illness, and the strengths / weaknesses of this tool here at NIMH.
ZoomInfo

thejunglenook:

innocentpunkrockkids:

"The brain can get sick too." 

Re-make of this post.

End mental health stigma.

Mental health research, treatment, and education is so terribly important. There is so much we don’t yet understand about the brain and mental health disorders / illnesses… images like these have been one of the most useful tools in breaking down mental health stigma (especially among those who have never faced these issues). 

Read more about neuroimaging, mental illness, and the strengths / weaknesses of this tool here at NIMH.

Quote IconPeople like to justify to themselves that the work they are doing is valid and it seems natural to use words to tell yourself that what you are doing is important and meaningful. But it’s important to not to too narrowly define what you’re doing through the use of language. People want to feel like they have a grip on things and so using words to make sense of what you’re doing might provide a feeling of relief and control but be careful you don’t make your project less interesting by having it fit neatly into a scheme of words. Images have a power that is different from the power of words and they communicate in ways that words cannot. In today’s culture, words dominate our thinking and, used in a lazy manner, they help sustain a spectrum of fundamentalist thought. Being able to accept ambiguity leads to a better quality of life and better work.